Andrew was crucified in Patras, Greece.
Bartholomew (aka Nathanael) was flayed to death with a whip in Armenia.
James the Just was thrown from the temple and then beaten to death in Jerusalem.
James the Greater was beheaded in Jerusalem.
John died in exile on the island of Patmos.
Luke was hanged in Greece.
Mark was dragged by horse until he died in Alexandria, Egypt.
Matthew was killed by a sword in Ethiopia.
Matthias was stoned and then beheaded in Jerusalem.
Peter was crucified upside down in Rome.
Philip was crucified in Phrygia.
Thomas was stabbed to death with a spear in India.
There were two quick ways to end the upstart Christian religion in the first century (and both the Jewish and Roman leadership would have been eager to accomplish this task). First, the enemies of Christianity could simply have dragged the body of Jesus through town to demonstrate he was still dead. Second, they could have forced the alleged eyewitnesses to recant. Neither of these two things ever occurred.
[Det finns flera antika skildringar om hur andra generationens kristna avsvor sig kristendomen under hot och förföljelser, ex. av Pliny d. y., men ingen av dem som var ögonvittnen till återuppståndelsen gjorde det.]
Not every early Christian was willing to die for his or her beliefs. Here we have excellent evidence of second generation Christians recanting their claims to stay alive in the Roman Empire.
Yet there isn’t a single ancient document, letter or piece of evidence indicating any of the Christian eyewitnesses (the apostolic disciples) ever changed their story or surrendered their claims. Given the reasonable expectation of this Roman effort and the evidence from history confirming the trials of Christians, it’s remarkable none of the eyewitnesses ever changed their claims.
Our willingness (as non-witnesses later in history) to die for what we believe has no evidential value, but the willingness of the first disciples to die for what they saw with their own eyes is a critical piece of evidence in the case for Christianity.
Observera den mycket viktiga skillnaden mellan någon som var med och VET vad som är sant, och någon som TROR sig veta vad som är sant. Var återuppståndelsen bara en bluff, så hade ögonvittnena vetat det, och det fanns med andra ord ingen som helst anledning för dem att i så fall dö för en tro som de visste byggde på en lögn. Trots det vägrade samtliga att ta tillbaka sitt vittnesmål, ända in i döden.